We present an autonomous soft-bodied robotic fish that is hydraulically actuated and capable of sustained swimming in three dimensions. A fish-like soft body deforms through hydraulic actuation. A closed-circuit drive system that uses water as a transmission fluid is used to actuate the soft body. Circulation of the water through internal body channels provides control over the fish's caudal fin propulsion and yaw motion. A new fabrication technique for the soft body is described, which allows for arbitrary internal fluidic channels, enabling a wide-range of continuous body deformations. Furthermore, dynamic diving capabilities are introduced through pectoral fins as dive planes. Static diving capability is given by an piston-type buoyancy unit. These innovations enable prolonged fish-like locomotion in three dimensions.
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