Inverse Kinematics for Reduced Deformable Models
Articulated shapes are aptly described by reduced deformable models that express required shape deformations using a compact set of control parameters. Although sufficient to describe most shape deformations, these control parameters can be ill-suited for animation tasks, particularly when reduced deformable models are inferred automatically from example shapes.
Interactive Animation of Dynamic Manipulation
Lifelike animation of object manipulation requires dynamic interaction between animated characters, objects, and their environment. These interactions can be animated automatically with physically based simulations but proper controls are needed to animate characters that move realistically and that accomplish tasks in spite of unexpected disturbances. This paper describes an effcient control algorithm that generates realistic animations by incorporating motion data into task execution. The end result is a versatile system for interactive animation of dynamic manipulation tasks such as lifting, catching, and throwing.
Face Transfer with Multilinear Models
Face Transfer is a method for mapping videorecorded performances of one individual to facial animations of another. It extracts visemes (speech-related mouth articulations), expressions, and three-dimensional (3D) pose from monocular video or film footage. These parameters are then used to generate and drive a detailed 3D textured face mesh for a target identity, which can be seamlessly rendered back into target footage. The underlying face model automatically adjusts for how the target performs facial expressions and visemes. The performance data can be easily edited to change the visemes, expressions, pose, or even the identity of the target—the attributes are separably controllable.
Continuous Capture of Skin Deformation
We describe a method for the acquisition of deformable human geometry from silhouettes. Our technique uses a commercial tracking system to determine the motion of the skeleton, then estimates geometry for each bone using constraints provided by the silhouettes from one or more cameras. These silhouettes do not give a complete characterization of the geometry for a particular point in time, but when the subject moves, many observations of the same local geometries allow the construction of a complete model. Our reconstruction algorithm provides a simple mechanism for solving the problems of view aggregation, occlusion handling, hole filling, noise removal, and deformation modeling. The resulting model is parameterized to synthesize geometry for new poses of the skeleton.
Style Translation for Human Motion
Style translation is the process of transforming an input motion into a new style while preserving its original content. This problem is motivated by the needs of interactive applications, which require rapid processing of captured performances. Our solution learns to translate by analyzing differences between performances of the same content in input and output styles. It relies on a novel correspondence algorithm to align motions, and a linear time-invariant model to represent stylistic differences. Once the model is estimated with system identification, our system is capable of translating streaming input with simple linear operations at each frame.
Example-Based Control of Human Motion
In human motion control applications, the mapping between a control specification and an appropriate target motion often defies an explicit encoding. We present a method that allows such a mapping to be defined by example, given that the control specification is recorded motion. Our method begins by building a database of semantically meaningful instances of the mapping, each of which is represented by synchronized segments of control and target motion. A dynamic programming algorithm can then be used to interpret an input control specification in terms of mapping instances. This interpretation induces a sequence of target segments from the database, which is concatenated to create the appropriate target motion. We evaluate our method on two examples of indirect control.
Mesh-Based Inverse Kinematics
The ability to position a small subset of mesh vertices and produce a meaningful overall deformation of the entire mesh is a fundamental task in mesh editing and animation. However, the class of meaningful deformations varies from mesh to mesh and depends on mesh kinematics, which prescribes valid mesh configurations, and a selection mechanism for choosing among them. Drawing an analogy to the traditional use of skeleton-based inverse kinematics for posing skeletons, we define mesh-based inverse kinematics as the problem of finding meaningful mesh deformations that meet specified vertex constraints. Our solution relies on example meshes to indicate the class of meaningful deformations.
Deformation Transfer for Triangle Meshes
Deformation transfer applies the deformation exhibited by a source triangle mesh onto a different target triangle mesh. Our approach is general and does not require the source and target to share the same number of vertices or triangles, or to have identical connectivity. The user builds a correspondence map between the triangles of the source and those of the target by specifying a small set of vertex markers. Deformation transfer computes the set of transformations induced by the deformation of the source mesh, maps the transformations through the correspondence from the source to the target, and solves an optimization problem to consistently apply the transformations to the target shape.
Adaptation of Performed Ballistic Motion
Adaptation of ballistic motion demands a technique that can make required adjustments in anticipation of flight periods when only some physically consistent changes are possible. This article describes a numerical procedure that adjusts a physically consistent motion to fulfill new adaptation requirements expressed in kinematic and dynamic constraints. This iterative procedure refines the original motion with a sequence of minimal adjustments, implicitly favoring motions that are similar to the original performance, and transforming any input motion, including those that are difficult to characterize with an objective function.