A Meshless Hierarchical Representation for Light Transport
We introduce a meshless hierarchical representation for solving light transport problems. Precomputed radiance transfer (PRT) and finite elements require a discrete representation of illumination over the scene. Non-hierarchical approaches such as per-vertex values are simple to implement, but lead to long precomputation. Hierarchical bases like wavelets lead to dramatic acceleration, but in their basic form they work well only on flat or smooth surfaces. We introduce a hierarchical function basis induced by scattered data approximation. It is decoupled from the geometric representation, allowing the hierarchical representation of illumination on complex objects. We present simple data structures and algorithms for constructing and evaluating the basis functions.
Hair Photobooth: Geometric and Photometric Acquisition of Real Hairstyles
We accurately capture the shape and appearance of a person's hairstyle. We use triangulation and a sweep with planes of light for the geometry. Multiple projectors and cameras address the challenges raised by the reflectance and intricate geometry of hair. We introduce the use of structure tensors to infer the hidden geometry between the hair surface and the scalp. Our triangulation approach affords substantial accuracy improvement and we are able to measure elaborate hair geometry including complex curls and concavities. To reproduce the hair appearance, we capture a six-dimensional reflectance field. We introduce a new reflectance interpolation technique that leverages an analytical reflectance model to alleviate cross-fading artifacts caused by linear methods.
The Lightspeed Automatic Interactive Lighting Preview System
We present an automated approach for high-quality preview of feature-film rendering during lighting design. Similar to previous work, we use a deep-framebuffer shaded on the GPU to achieve interactive performance. Our first contribution is to generate the deep-framebuffer and corresponding shaders automatically through data-flow analysis and compilation of the original scene. Cache compression reduces automatically-generated deep-framebuffers to reasonable size for complex production scenes and shaders. We also propose a new structure, the indirect framebuffer, that decouples shading samples from final pixels and allows a deep-framebuffer to handle antialiasing, motion blur and transparency efficiently. Progressive refinement enables fast feedback at coarser resolution.
Real-time Edge-Aware Image Processing with the Bilateral Grid
We present a new data structure---the bilateral grid, that enables fast edge-aware image processing. By working in the bilateral grid, algorithms such as bilateral filtering, edge-aware painting, and local histogram equalization become simple manipulations that are both local and independent. We parallelize our algorithms on modern GPUs to achieve real-time frame rates on high-definition video. We demonstrate our method on a variety of applications such as image editing, transfer of photographic look, and contrast enhancement of medical images.
Apparent Ridges for Line Drawing
Three-dimensional shape can be drawn using a variety of feature lines, but none of the current definitions alone seem to capture all visually-relevant lines. We introduce a new definition of feature lines based on two perceptual observations. First, human perception is sensitive to the variation of shading, and since shape perception is little affected by lighting and reflectance modification, we should focus on normal variation. Second, view-dependent lines better convey smooth surfaces. From this we define view-dependent curvature as the variation of the surface normal with respect to a viewing screen plane, and apparent ridges as the loci of points that maximize a view-dependent curvature.
Interactive Editing and Modeling of Bidirectional Texture Functions
While measured Bidirectional Texture Functions (BTF) enable impressive realism in material appearance, they offer little control, which limits their use for content creation. In this work, we interactively manipulate BTFs and create new BTFs from flat textures. We present an out-of-core approach to manage the size of BTFs and introduce new editing operations that modify the appearance of a material. These tools achieve their full potential when selectively applied to subsets of the BTF through the use of new selection operators. We further analyze the use of our editing operators for the modification of important visual characteristics such as highlights, roughness, and fuzziness.
A Topological Approach to Hierarchical Segmentation Using Mean Shift
Mean shift is a popular method to segment images and videos. Pixels are represented by feature points, and the segmentation is driven by the point density in feature space. In this paper, we introduce the use of Morse theory to interpret mean shift as a topological decomposition of the feature space into density modes. This allows us to build on the watershed technique and design a new algorithm to compute mean-shift segmentations of images and videos. In addition, we introduce the use of topological persistence to create a segmentation hierarchy. We validated our method by clustering images using color cues. In this context, our technique runs faster than previous work, especially on videos and large images.
Two-scale Tone Management for Photographic Look
We introduce a new approach to tone management for photographs. Whereas traditional tone-mapping operators target a neutral and faithful rendition of the input image, we explore pictorial looks by controlling visual qualities such as the tonal balance and the amount of detail. Our method is based on a two-scale non-linear decomposition of an image. We modify the different layers based on their histograms and introduce a technique that controls the spatial variation of detail. We introduce a Poisson correction that prevents potential gradient reversal and preserves detail. In addition to directly controlling the parameters, the user can transfer the look of a model photograph to the picture being edited.
Texture Transfer Using Geometric Correlation
Texture variation on real-world objects often correlates with underlying geometric characteristics and creates a visually rich appearance. We present a technique to transfer such geometry-dependent texture variation from an example textured model to new geometry in a visually consistent way. It captures the correlation between a set of geometric features, such as curvature, and the observed diffuse texture. We perform dimensionality reduction on the overcomplete feature set which yields a compact guidance field that is used to drive a spatially varying texture synthesis model. In addition, we introduce a method to enrich the guidance field when the target geometry strongly differs from the example.
Image-Driven Navigation of Analytical BRDF Models
Specifying parameters of analytic BRDF models is a difficult task as these parameters are often not intuitive for artists and their effect on appearance can be non-uniform. Ideally, a given step in the parameter space should produce a predictable and perceptually-uniform change in the rendered image. Systems that employ psychophysics have produced important advances in this direction; however, the requirement of user studies limits scalability of these approaches. In this work, we propose a new and intuitive method for designing material appearance. First, we define a computational metric between BRDFs that is based on rendered images of a scene under natural illumination. We show that our metric produces results that agree with previous perceptual studies.